MGT 345 Organizational Behavior

Spring 2005 
Thursday 7 – 9:50 PM

Kari Halko-Weekes, Ph.D.
Burkle Building 206
Mailbox in copy room Upper Level Burkle Building
Phone: 909-591-8221
Fax: 909-621-8543
E-Mail: Drhweekes@hotmail.com  
Do not hesitate to contact me for an appointment

Course Objective

The purpose of this course is to provide you with a foundation of fundamental skills you will need for understanding/diagnosing and managing organizational behavior, i.e., the human aspects of work organizations.

Course Reading Materials

Managing for the Future.  2nd ed.  Ancona, Kochan, Scully, Van Maanen, and Westney.  South-Western College Publishing: Cincinnati, 1998.  ISBN: 0538875461.

The following website should be used in completing your self-analysis papers: http://cac.psu.edu/~j5j/test/ipipneo1.htm

The Learning Process

We will use a combination of many techniques to facilitate your learning about organizational behavior.  First, we will be reading material from both the assigned book—which includes a compilation of readings—and additional outside resources (e.g., articles).  Second, we will engage in dynamic discussions to further facilitate your understanding of the reading material.  Third, we will engage in skill-building, experiential learning exercises.  Fourth, you will complete two written assignments and one presentation to help you clarify your understanding of the material.
 
Throughout the course you will be challenged to compare the material we cover to your personal experiences and to ask yourself “what would I do as a leader?”.

Your Responsibilities

1. Contact the instructor for appointments any time you need help.
2. Read all assigned materials before class.
3. Contribute to class discussions.
4. Complete all assignments on time (outside assignments will be due at the beginning of class).
5. Comply with University Student Academic Integrity Code 

Course Requirements

Your final course grade will be based on the following criteria:

Class Participation (individual)   40%
Self-Analysis Paper (individual)   30%
Organizational Analysis Paper  (group)  20%
Presentation (group)    10%

Class Participation

Giving straight lectures is as boring as is listening to them.  We will have interactive, informed discussions of the material we cover in class.  Everyone is expected to contribute.  You will be evaluated more on “what” you say than “how much” you say.  If you have trouble “speaking-out” see the professor.  We will develop a plan that makes you a valuable contributor to the class.  The purpose of class participation is to refine your oral communication skills (a very valuable skill in organizations).  You are expected to attend every class, on time and prepared.

Self-Analysis Paper

Your task in this paper is to be self-analytic.  During the first segment of the course you will have received a number of different kinds of information of potential relevance to you as a person.  Some of this will come in the form of your behavior during class periods.  Other information will come from your experiences outside class, like where you have worked or been involved in community groups.  This paper should attempt to present a coherent picture of the writer using whatever concepts are helpful with special attention given to the data used to arrive at the “picture”.  The central question for this paper is “what do I bring to the role of leader that might influence the way I act in that role?” In this paper you should identify your 2-3 most important personal characteristics, provide ample evidence for each characteristic and speculate on how each characteristic is likely to affect you in the role of a leader (maximum 4 pages, double-spaced, single-sided, 12 point, Times New Roman font, 1 inch margins, with no grammar or spelling errors, also include a title page and a table of contents, and place one staple in the upper left hand corner of the paper).  The first page of the paper should be a title page.  The second page should provide a table of contents that lists the major areas of the paper, along with page numbers.  The main text of the paper should begin on page 3 and end by page 7.  The format of the text should include an introduction that briefly describes the main content of the paper.  Then you should provide separate sub-sections for each of the personal characteristics you have identified as being your most important characteristics as relates to your abilities in leadership positions—within each of these sub-sections you should provide multiple types of evidence to support the existence of the characteristics and then you should speculate on how each characteristics might help and hinder you in the role of a leader.  The final section of the main text should be a conclusion.  Following the conclusion, in an appendix, provide a hard copy of the results of the IPIP online personality inventory.  You may also include any other appendices that help to support your paper.

Your written assignment will be evaluated on the following criteria:

1. Your diagnostic ability: the extent to which you can identify and organize concrete and significant data about phenomena that you are trying to analyze.
2. Your analytic and conceptual skills: the extent to which you are able to integrate your own personal experience and the various theories and concepts from the course for reaching an insightful understanding of the phenomena under examination.
3. Your communication skills: the extent to which you are able to communicate your understanding of human behavior in a clear, non-judgmental and concise manner.

The purpose of this paper is to help you develop a deeper, more empathic understanding of yourself and others, rather than a new way to label and categorize people.  All papers will be treated as privileged, private communication to the professor of this course.  You may feel free to show your papers to anyone you wish but the professor will abide by the above statement.

Organizational Analysis Paper

Painting a picture.

The goal of this assignment (maximum 10 pages double-spaced, single-sided, 12 point Times New Roman font, 1 inch margins, with no grammar or spelling errors, also include a title page and a table of contents, and place one staple in the upper left hand corner of the paper) is for you to create a metaphor that captures the key cultural aspects of the organization you study.  The metaphor should consist of 3-5 sub-metaphors (each of which represents a key cultural attribute of the organization under study).  The first page of the paper should be a title page.  The second page should provide a table of contents that lists the major areas of the paper, along with page numbers.  The main text of the paper should begin on page 3 and end by page 12.  The format of the text should include an introduction that briefly describes the main content of the paper (including some background on the organization and your approach to the study).  The second section should introduce the metaphor.  Then you should provide separate sub-sections for each of the sub-metaphors you have identified as being most representative of the key cultural attributes of the organization under study—within each of these sub-sections you should provide multiple types of evidence to support the existence of the sub-metaphor and the cultural attribute it represents.  The final section of the main text should be a conclusion.  Following the conclusion, you may also include any other appendices that help to support your paper.

The spirit of inquiry

Data gathering provides you with the raw material to paint your picture of the organization.  It is both a necessary and critical component of this assignment, because it gives the textures, colors, and strokes with which to work.  Gathered data enables you to take your analysis deeper, to discover how others think about the organization and to integrate conceptual maps with organizational realities.  Furthermore, data generation requires you to develop a capacity to use colleagues as resources.  There are several ways to gather data for your organizational analysis: (1) observation; (2) interviews; (3) questionnaires; and (4) analysis of organizational records.  No one method is recommended over others.  However, combining methods produces a far richer and more insightful analysis.

Some odds and ends

1. The point of focus should be a small division or unit (approximately 10 – 30 employees).

2. The sub-metaphors should illuminate the key cultural values of the group of people you are analyzing rather than illuminating characteristics of separate individuals or sub-groups. 

3. There are two books I strongly recommend to help you in the creation of your metaphor: Images of Organization by Gareth Morgan; and Understanding Global Cultures by Martin Gannon.

Presentation

The presentations will last approximately 30 minutes including a question and answer period. The topic of the presentation will be your organizational analysis.  The presentation will be evaluated on how well organized it is, how clearly you communicate your ideas, and how well you respond during the question and answer period.  In business, you will frequently be asked to give brief presentations during departmental meetings, and the like.  Thus, the purpose of the presentation is to sharpen your skills at providing concise and clear presentations.  This is also a chance to receive feedback on your organizational analysis to improve it before turning in your written report.

Tentative Course Outline

Session

Date

Topic

Assignment

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

1

January 20

Introduction to the course, teamwork exercise

 

2

January 27

The “new” organization

module 1

3

February 3

Three lenses on organizational analysis

module 2

4

February 10

Three lenses on organizational analysis

module 2

5

February 17

Diverse cognitive styles in teams

module 4

6

February 24

Team processes

module 5

7

March 3

Teams in organizations

module 6, Self-analysis Paper Due

8

March 10

Workforce management

module 7

 

March 17

Spring break

 

9

March 24

Learning across borders

Module 10

10

March 31

Negotiation and conflict resolution

Module 12

11

April 7

Issue selling and managing up

Module 13

12

April 14

Project work/Presentations and feedback

 

13

April 21

Project work—no class

 

14

April 28

Presentations and feedback

Summary of the course

Organizational Analysis Paper Due

 

Session 1 Introduction to the course

Introduction of Professor

Introduction to the course

Introduction of all participants

Teamwork exercise


Session 2 The organization of the future

Readings:
The “new” organization: Taking action in an era of organizational transformation. Ancona, et al. 1999.
  Overview
  Changing organizational models
  Excerpts from:
The coming of the new organization. Drucker, 1988
The new managerial work. Kanter, 1989
The American corporation as an employer. Kochan, 1996
The work of new age managers in the emerging competitive landscape. Prahalad, 1997
Beyond the hype: Rediscovering the essence of management. Eccles, Nohria and Berkley. 1992
Will the organization of the future make the mistakes of the past? Pfeffer, 1997
Coda to the new organization.  Van Maanen, 1997
The search for the organization of tomorrow. Stewart, 1992
Reading the business press. Ancona, et al. 1999.

Exercise:
 Mapping your organization questionnaire
 Questions for the exercise:
 What specific structures of processes in your organization led you to rate it as you did on each of the five features of the new organization?
 What skills and knowledge are most important for you in working effectively in this organization?
 What skills and knowledge are most important for your direct reports in working effectively in this organization?
 What skills and knowledge are most important for your manager in working effectively in this organization?

Case:
 The strategy that wouldn’t travel.  Beers, 1996

Questions for the case:
What are the features of the new organizational model that this company is trying to develop?
What did Karen Jiminez and her team do that made the changes at the Wichita plant happen?
What were the features of the organizational context that helped?
What could she do to take more effective action in the context of the second plant?


Session 3 Multiple perspectives on organizations

Readings: 
Three lenses on organizational analysis and action. Ancona, et al. 1999.
 Overview
  Introduction
  The strategic design lens
  The organization as strategic design

Case:
 ABB—through the strategic design lens. Westney, 1999.

 Questions for the case:
 What are the strategic grouping structures?
 What are the principle linking mechanisms?
 What are the major alignment challenges and how does ABB address them?
 What do you see as the major strengths of ABB’s organization design?
 What about its weaknesses?
 Would you like to work as an operating company manager in ABB?


Session 4 Multiple perspectives on organizations (cont.)

Readings:
Three lenses on organizational analysis and action. Ancona, et al. 1999
 The political lens
 A brief intellectual history of the political perspective
  Power failure in management circuits. Rosabeth Moss Kanter, 1979.
  The cultural lens
  Organizational culture. Schein, 1990.
  Applying the lenses
 
Case:
 Dynacorp. Nadler, 1999.

Questions for the case:
What are the problems in this organization from the strategic design perspective?
What are the problems in this organization from the political perspective?
What are the problems in this organization from the cultural perspective?
Using your analysis, what plan of action would you suggest for each of the major players in the case?

SPECIAL NOTE: TURN IN THE COGNITIVE STYLE SELF ASSESSMENT SUMMARY FROM PAGE 15 OF “DIVERSE COGNITIVE STYLES IN TEAMS”


Session 5 Individuals and Teams

Readings:
Diverse cognitive styles in teams. Ancona, et al. 1999.
 Overview

Exercise:
 Complete the cognitive styles self assessment (Turn in during the previous session).

Readings (cont.): READ THESE AFTER THE CLASS SESSION
 Reading module (cont.): Diverse cognitive styles in teams. Ancona, et al. 1999.
 Diverse cognitive styles in teams
 Mapping managerial styles. Margerison and Lewis, 1981.
 Give me an E. Give me an S. Golden, 1990.


Session 6 Diagnosing and Intervening in Team Dynamics

Readings:
Compilation of articles on team processes: Team processes. Ancona, et al., 1999. Cincinnati, OH: South-western College Publishing.  ISBN:0-538-87692-1.
 Overview
 Team process observation guide
 Team decision making
 The trouble with teams

Case:
 Video case
  Questions for the case:
See Appendix A for the questions in the Team Process Observation Guide—sub-groups will be assigned for these questions


Session 7 Managing Team Boundaries

SPECIAL NOTE: SELF-ANALYSIS PAPERS ARE DUE AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SESSION

Readings:
Teams in organizations. Ancona, et al., 1999.
 Overview
 Outward bound: Linking team to their organization
 The tyranny of a team ideology
 The discipline of teams

Case:
 Aston-Blair, Inc.
  Questions for the case:
  What are the important contextual issues in the case?
  What are the critical/crucial problems?
  What are the key milestones
  What did or did not happen during each milestone?

Exercise:
 Role plays of various characters


Session 8 Managing the Team Environment

Readings:
Workforce management: Employment relationships in changing organizations. Ancona, et al., 1999.
 Overview
 Managing a changing workforce in turbulent times
 The changing social contract for white-collar workers
 A brave new Darwinian workplace
 The unfinished agenda
 Patterned chaos in human resource management
 Burned-out bosses

Case:
 Case of the part-time partner
 Questions for the case:
 Without discussing your vote with anyone, vote yes or no for Tim and yes or no for Julie.  Write your votes on one note card (which will be provided) and turn it in at the beginning of the session.  During the session we will explore the reasons why people voted yes/no for Tim and Julie.

Exercise:
 Teamwork exercise


Session 9 International organizational behavior

Readings:
Learning across borders: Disneyland from California to Paris via Tokyo. Ancona, et al., 1991.
  Overview

Multi-part Case:
 Disneyland in the USA. Ancona, et al., 1999.
 The smile factory: Work at Disneyland. Van Maanen, 1990. 
 Disney goes to Tokyo, Ancona, et al., 1999.
 Displacing Disney: Some notes on the flow of culture. Van Maanen, 1992.
 Disneyland goes to Europe, Ancona, et al., 1999.
 France amazed, amused by Disney dress code. Neher, 1995.
 Mouse Trap. Gumbel and Turner, 1994.

Questions for the case:
What are the major problems at Disneyland Paris?
Why the overbuilding?
Why Paris?
What about the impact of the travel cost to Orlando?
What is Disney selling?
What do you get from a visit to a US park?
How is Disney’s work culture shaped?
Why do employees work so hard?
How would you describe Disney’s culture?
What are some artifacts?
What are the values?
What explains the success of Disney Tokyo?
What recommendations do you have for Paris?



Session 10 Negotiation and conflict resolution

Readings:
 Negotiation and conflict resolution. Ancona, et al., 1999.
  Overview
  Introduction
 Some wise and mistaken assumptions about conflict and negotiation. Rubin, 1999.
 Interests: The measure of negotiation. Lax and Sebenius, 1999.

Case:
 Alpha and Beta (to be distributed in class)


Session 11 Managing up and issue selling

Readings:
 Roads to successful issue selling.  Ancona, et al., 1999.
  Overview
  Change from within. Ancona, et al., 1999.
Dinosaurs or dynamos? Recognizing middle management’s strategic role. Floyd and Wooldrige.

Case:
 The issue with Inex

 Questions for the case:
  How would you describe Jones’ position in the organization?
  What issue is he trying to sell up the hierarchy?
 What do you think of the president in all of this? Is this a good developmental experience or an abdication of responsibility? Could the president be more directly helpful to Jones? Should she be?
 What do you think about the decision making process in this organization?
What do you think about Chris Davis’ actions?
  What drives Janet Brown? Why does she behave the way she does?

Exercise:
 Issue-selling exercise


Session 12 Project Work and Presentations

The purpose of the presentations is two-fold.  First, it is to give you more experience in giving formal presentations.  Being able to effectively give formal presentations is critical to your career.  As such, you will get feedback from me and all of your classmates regarding how you might be able to improve your presentation.  The second purpose of the presentations is to give you feedback that you can use in enhancing your paper.  As such, you will get feedback from me and all of your classmates regarding how you might be able to improve your paper.  Depending on the size of the class, we should have some in class time to work on your organizational analysis papers.


Session 13 Project work—no class


Session 14 Presentations and summary of the course

SPECIAL NOTE: ORGANIZATIONAL ANALYSIS PAPER IS DUE AT THE BEGINNING OF THIS SESSION



Suggested Readings to compliment the course

Shared Leadership: Reframing the How’s and Why’s of Leadership. Pearce & Conger, Sage: Thousand Oaks, CA, forthcoming, 2003.

The New SuperLeadership. Manz & Sims, Berrett Koehler: San Francisco, 2001.

Designing Team-based Organizations. Mohrman, Cohen & Mohrman, Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, 1995.

Business Without Bosses: How Self-managing teams are building high performing companies. Manz & Sims, Wiley: New York, 1993.

Hot Groups: Seeding Them, Feeding Them and Using Them to Ignite Your Organization. Lipman-Blumen & Leavitt, Oxford University Press: Oxford, 1999.

Leadership in Organizations (5th edition). Yukl, Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ, 2001.

Management Challenges for the 21st Century. Drucker. HarperCollins: New York, 1999.

Organizational Culture and Leadership. Schein.  Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, 1992.

Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice and leadership (2nd ed.), Bolman and Deal, San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass, 1991.

Leadership and the Quest for Integrity. Badaracco & Ellsworth, Harvard Business School Press: Boston, 1989.

The thinking organization. H. P. Sims & D. A. Gioia (eds.), Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, 1986.

Images of Organization. Morgan. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA, 1986.

Organizational Architecture. Nadler, Gerstein, Shaw and Associates. Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, 1992.

Flow. Csikszentmihalyi.  Harper and Row: New York, 1990.

Complex Organizations. Perrow. McGraw Hill: New York, 1986.

Organizational Culture and Leadership. Schein.  Jossey-Bass: San Francisco, CA, 1992.

Understanding Global Cultures.  Gannon and Associates. Sage Publications: Newbury Park, CA.  1994.



Appendix A: Team Process Observation Guide

1. Membership
· Do the team members have the required expertise and authority to carry out the task?
· Are all people who have a stake in the team's output represented?
· What is the racial/ethnic and sex mix in the team?  How does this combination affect the team?
· How committed are individual members to the team?  In what ways are conflicts over different levels of commitment resolved?
· Which hierarchical level and functional areas are represented in the team? How does this combination affect the team?

2. Organizational Context
· Have the goals and the task of the team been clearly identified?
· Are team members rewarded for individual rather than team performance?
· Has the team been granted enough autonomy to accomplish the task?
· Does the team have access to the information and resources needed to perform its task?

3. Communication Patterns
· Who are the most frequent participators? Why? What is the effect of their participation?
· Who are the least frequent participators? Why? What is the effect of their lack of participation?
· Are their shifts in participation?  What causes these?
· Who talks with whom?  Who responds to whom?  Who triggers whom?
· How are "silent" and "noisy" member handled?

4. Influence Strategies
· Who has the most impact on the team's actions and decisions?
· Whose ideas are ignored? What is the result?
· What tactics do members use to influence each other?
· Does rivalry exist in the team?  What impact does it have?
· How does the formal leader exert his/her influence?

5. Decision Making
· Does the team follow the four-step procedure of rational decision making (identify the problem--analyze the problem--propose and evaluate solutions--implement the decision)?  With what consequences?
· Does one person make the decision for everyone?  With what consequences?
· Does the team strive for consensus?  With what consequences?
· Does the team vote on decisions and let majority rule?  With what consequences?
· Does the team strive for consensus? With what consequences?
· Does the team encourage minority opinion?

6. Conflict
· How often do members disagree about the work to be done?
· To what extent are there arguments about procedural issues?
· To what extent do individuals take the arguments in the team personally?
· How often do members get angry with one another while working?

7. Atmosphere
· Are people friendly and open or very formal with one another?
· Are people involved and interested?
· Is there an atmosphere of work, an atmosphere of play, an atmosphere of competition?
· Are people in constant conflict or disagreement?
· Is there any attempt to avoid unpleasantness by ignoring tough issues?

8. Emotional Issues
The main emotional issues that individuals will face in teams include the following:
· Identity: Who am I in this team?  Where do I fit in?  What role should I play?
· Goals and Needs:  What do I want from this team?  What do I have to offer?  Can the team's goals be made consistent with mine?
· Power and Control:  Who will control what we do?  How much power and influence do I have?
· Intimacy:  How close will we get to each other?  How much trust exists among us?


 

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