Reference Requirements, Binding, Photos, and Other Instructions

Be sure to have FIVE REFERENCES (either paraphrases or direct quotes) per part / section that reference speakers and texts. 

- Reserve your direct quotes for “gems” – those phrases that are so good (i.e. so concise, so uniquely worded, so dazzling, etc.) that something would be lost if you paraphrased. If you can say something more clearly or more concisely than the original text, do so!

- Be sure to cite / document according to APA (i.e., in-text attribution, parenthetical citation, and bibliographic entry).

References vs. Data


Texts you’ve read (whether in Teacher Education or not)


Course packets or articles



Student work

Comments made by students or other educators

Accountability data on your school


Expectations of Graduate-level Scholarly Writing

Graduate scholarly writing… interesting and has a clear purpose

...uses academic language that is in the active voice and the formal register (instead of slang or colloquialisms in the informal register)

...uses varied sentence structure (simple, compound, complex) and varied sentence beginnings well-organized with focused, developed paragraphs that are logically ordered void of grammatical, usage, mechanical, and surface errors

...has proper documentation (i.e., APA)

Interns are encouraged to visit CGU’s Writing Center



Photos are often a nice addition to the ethnography.

Each photo should have its own caption.

(Written) parental permission is required for youth featured in the photos.


Approval and Binding

After your faculty advisor has given your ethnography final approval, you will bind the Preface and Parts A-E. One of the bound copies is kept at CGU. The other is returned to you by the Faculty Advisor.

In the past, most interns have used a commercial printing place (like Kinko’s or King’s Copy) to have their ethnographies spiral bound.

Warning! Do NOT get your ethnography bound until your faculty advisor has given you the “green light” to do so.

Your Faculty Advisor will not give you the “green light” until all changes have been made and approved and your ethnography is in publish-ready shape.



Writing Center 141 East Twelfth Street, Claremont, CA 91711 909-607-0012

2017 Claremont Graduate University 150 E. 10th St., Claremont, CA 91711 (909) 621-8000 Campus Safety Emergency Info Campus Map/Driving Directions