POS investigates positive deviance, or the ways in which organizations and their members flourish and prosper in especially favorable ways. Positive refers to an affirmative bias focused on the elevating processes and dynamics in organizations. Organizational refers to the processes and conditions that occur in and through organizations, especially taking into account the context in which positive phenomena occur. Scholarship refers to the scientific, theoretically based, and rigorous investigation of positive phenomena.
POB is the study and application of positively oriented human resource strengths and psychological capacities that can be measured, developed, and effectively managed for performance improvement in today’s workplace.
Positive leadership refers to an emphasis on what elevates individuals and organizations (in addition to what challenges them), what goes right in organizations (in addition to what goes wrong), what is life-giving (in addition to what is problematic or life-depleting), what is experienced as good (in addition to what is objectionable), what is extraordinary (in addition to what is merely effective), and what is inspiring (in addition to what is difficult or arduous).
- Cameron, 2008, p.3
Authentic leadership is a process that draws from both positive psychological capacities and a highly developed organizational context, which results in both greater self-awareness and self-regulated positive behaviors on the part of leaders and associates, fostering positive self-development.
Wooten, L.P. & Cameron, K.S. (2009). Enablers of a positive strategy: Positively deviant leadership. In Oxford Handbook of Positive Psychology at Work (pp. 53-66). P. A. Linley, S. Harrington, & N. Garcea (Eds.). Oxford University Press: New York.
Sosik, J.J. & Jung, D.I. (2010). Full Range Leadership Development: Pathways for People, Profit, and Planet. Psychology Press; 1 edition (February 25, 2011)
AI refers to the cooperative search for the best in people, their organizations, and the world around them. It involves systematic discover of what gives a system ‘life’ when it is most effective and capable in economic, ecological, and human terms.
- Cooperrider & Whitney, 1999, p.247
Cooperrider, D.L. & Whitney, D. (1999). Appreciative Inquiry: A positive revolution in change. In P. Holman, & T. Devane (eds.), The Change Handbook (pp., 245-261). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
Whitney, D., & Cooperrider, D. L. (2000). The appreciative inquiry summit: An emerging methodology for whole system positive change. Journal of Organization Development Network, 32, 13-26.
Strength refers to the ability to provide consistent, near-perfect performance in a given activity.
- Clifton & Harter, 2003, p.8
Clifton, D. O., & Harter, J. K. (2003). Investing in Strengths. In K. S. Cameron, J. E. Dutton, & R. E. Quinn (Eds.), Positive organizational scholarship (pp.21-35). San Francisco, CA: Berrett-Koehler.
An individual’s positive psychological state of development that is characterized by:
1) having confidence (self-efficacy) to take on and put in the necessary effort to succeed at challenging tasks; 2) making a positive attribution (optimism) about succeeding now and in the future; 3) persevering toward goals, and when necessary, redirecting paths to goals (hope) in order to succeed; and 4) when beset by problems and adversity, sustaining and bouncing back and even beyond (resiliency) to attain success.
- Luthans, Avey, Avolio, Norman, & Combs, 2006, p. 388
Luthans, F., & Youssef, C.M. (2004). Human, social, and now positive psychological capital management: Investing in people for competitive advantage. Organizational Dynamics, 33, 143–160.
Rus, C. L., & Băban, A. (2013). Correlates of positive psychological capital: A synthesis of the empirical research published between January 2000 and January 2010. Cognition, Brain, Behavior: An Interdisciplinary Journal, 17(2), 109-133.
Individuals’ actions, collective activities, cultural attributes, or processes that enable dissemination and perpetuation of virtuousness in an organization’ where virtuousness means ‘what individuals and organizations aspire to be when they are at their very best’
Bright, D. S., Stansbury, J., Alzola, M., & Stavros, J. M. (2011). Virtue Ethics in Positive Organizational Scholarship: An Integrative Perspective. Canadian Journal of Administrative Sciences (John Wiley & Sons, Inc.), 28(3), 231-243. doi:10.1002/cjas.199
Bright, D. d., Winn, B. b., & Kanov, J. J. (2014). Reconsidering Virtue: Differences of Perspective in Virtue Ethics and the Positive Social Sciences. Journal of Business Ethics, 119(4), 445-460.
Searle, T. P., & Barbuto, J. E. (2011). Servant Leadership, Hope, and Organizational Virtuousness: A Framework Exploring Positive Micro and Macro Behaviors and Performance Impact. Journal of Leadership & Organizational Studies, 18(1), 107-117. doi:10.1177/1548051810383863
The state in which people are so involved in an activity that nothing else seems to matter; the experience itself is so enjoyable that people will do it even at great cost, for the sheer sake of doing it.
Fullagar, C. J., & Kelloway, E. K. (2012). Work-related Flow. In Bakker, A.B. & Daniels, K. (Eds) A Day in the Life of a Happy Worker, Taylor & Francis: Hoboken: 41-57.
Fullagar, C. J., & Kelloway, E. K. (2009). 'Flow' at work: An experience sampling approach. Journal of Occupational & Organizational Psychology, 82(3), 595-615.
Nielsen, K. & Cleal, B. (2010). Predicting flow at work: Investigating the activities and job characteristics that predict flow states at work. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 15(2), 180-190
Grant, A. M., Curtayne, L., & Burton, G. (2009). Executive coaching enhances goal attainment, resilience and workplace well-being: A randomised controlled study. The Journal Of Positive Psychology, 4(5), 396-407. doi:10.1080/17439760902992456
Linley, P. A., Woolston, L., & Biswas-Diener, R. (2009). Strengths coaching with leaders. International Coaching Psychology Review, 4(1), 37-48.